Last login: Tue Jun 29 22:08:12 2021 from 192.168.3.47
[root@localhost ~]# fdisk /dev/sda
Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.23.2).

Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
Be careful before using the write command.

Command (m for help): m
Command action
   a   toggle a bootable flag
   b   edit bsd disklabel
   c   toggle the dos compatibility flag
   d   delete a partition
   g   create a new empty GPT partition table
   G   create an IRIX (SGI) partition table
   l   list known partition types
   m   print this menu
   n   add a new partition
   o   create a new empty DOS partition table
   p   print the partition table
   q   quit without saving changes
   s   create a new empty Sun disklabel
   t   change a partition's system id
   u   change display/entry units
   v   verify the partition table
   w   write table to disk and exit
   x   extra functionality (experts only)

Command (m for help): ^C
[root@localhost ~]#
[root@localhost ~]# df -h
Filesystem           Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/cl-root   17G   17G  3.3M 100% /
devtmpfs             901M     0  901M   0% /dev
tmpfs                912M     0  912M   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                912M  8.7M  904M   1% /run
tmpfs                912M     0  912M   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda1           1014M  185M  830M  19% /boot
tmpfs                183M     0  183M   0% /run/user/1001
tmpfs                183M     0  183M   0% /run/user/0
[root@localhost ~]# ls /dev
agpgart          dm-1       loop-control        pts       tty    tty21  tty35  tty49  tty62    vcs    vga_arbiter
autofs           dmmidi     mapper              random    tty0   tty22  tty36  tty5   tty63    vcs1   vhci
block            dri        mcelog              raw       tty1   tty23  tty37  tty50  tty7     vcs2   vhost-net
bsg              fb0        mem                 rtc       tty10  tty24  tty38  tty51  tty8     vcs3   vmci
btrfs-control    fd         midi                rtc0      tty11  tty25  tty39  tty52  tty9     vcs4   zero
bus              full       mqueue              sda       tty12  tty26  tty4   tty53  ttyS0    vcs5
char             fuse       net                 sda1      tty13  tty27  tty40  tty54  ttyS1    vcs6
cl               hidraw0    network_latency     sda2      tty14  tty28  tty41  tty55  ttyS2    vcsa
console          hpet       network_throughput  sg0       tty15  tty29  tty42  tty56  ttyS3    vcsa1
core             hugepages  null                shm       tty16  tty3   tty43  tty57  uhid     vcsa2
cpu              hwrng      nvram               snapshot  tty17  tty30  tty44  tty58  uinput   vcsa3
cpu_dma_latency  initctl    oldmem              snd       tty18  tty31  tty45  tty59  urandom  vcsa4
crash            input      port                stderr    tty19  tty32  tty46  tty6   usbmon0  vcsa5
disk             kmsg       ppp                 stdin     tty2   tty33  tty47  tty60  usbmon1  vcsa6
dm-0             log        ptmx                stdout    tty20  tty34  tty48  tty61  usbmon2  vfio
[root@localhost ~]#
[root@localhost ~]# fdisk  -l

Disk /dev/sda: 42.9 GB, 42949672960 bytes, 83886080 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x0009dedb

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048     2099199     1048576   83  Linux
/dev/sda2         2099200    41943039    19921920   8e  Linux LVM

Disk /dev/mapper/cl-root: 18.2 GB, 18249416704 bytes, 35643392 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

Disk /dev/mapper/cl-swap: 2147 MB, 2147483648 bytes, 4194304 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
[root@localhost dev]# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 42.9 GB, 42949672960 bytes, 83886080 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x0009dedb

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048     2099199     1048576   83  Linux
/dev/sda2         2099200    41943039    19921920   8e  Linux LVM

Disk /dev/mapper/cl-root: 18.2 GB, 18249416704 bytes, 35643392 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

Disk /dev/mapper/cl-swap: 2147 MB, 2147483648 bytes, 4194304 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

[root@localhost dev]# df -h
Filesystem           Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/cl-root   17G   17G  3.2M 100% /
devtmpfs             901M     0  901M   0% /dev
tmpfs                912M     0  912M   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                912M  8.7M  904M   1% /run
tmpfs                912M     0  912M   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda1           1014M  185M  830M  19% /boot
tmpfs                183M     0  183M   0% /run/user/1001
tmpfs                183M     0  183M   0% /run/user/0
[root@localhost dev]# fdisk /dev/sda
Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.23.2).

Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
Be careful before using the write command.

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sda: 42.9 GB, 42949672960 bytes, 83886080 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x0009dedb

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048     2099199     1048576   83  Linux
/dev/sda2         2099200    41943039    19921920   8e  Linux LVM

Command (m for help): n
Partition type:
   p   primary (2 primary, 0 extended, 2 free)
   e   extended
Select (default p): p
Partition number (3,4, default 3): 3
First sector (41943040-83886079, default 41943040): 
Using default value 41943040
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (41943040-83886079, default 83886079): 
Using default value 83886079
Partition 3 of type Linux and of size 20 GiB is set

Command (m for help): t
Partition number (1-3, default 3): 3
Hex code (type L to list all codes): 8e
Changed type of partition 'Linux' to 'Linux LVM'

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

WARNING: Re-reading the partition table failed with error 16: Device or resource busy.
The kernel still uses the old table. The new table will be used at
the next reboot or after you run partprobe(8) or kpartx(8)
Syncing disks.
[root@localhost dev]# partprobe
[root@localhost dev]# ls
agpgart          dmmidi        mcelog              rtc       tty10  tty25  tty4   tty54  ttyS2    vcsa1
autofs           dri           mem                 rtc0      tty11  tty26  tty40  tty55  ttyS3    vcsa2
block            fb0           midi                sda       tty12  tty27  tty41  tty56  uhid     vcsa3
bsg              fd            mqueue              sda1      tty13  tty28  tty42  tty57  uinput   vcsa4
btrfs-control    full          net                 sda2      tty14  tty29  tty43  tty58  urandom  vcsa5
bus              fuse          network_latency     sda3      tty15  tty3   tty44  tty59  usbmon0  vcsa6
char             hidraw0       network_throughput  sg0       tty16  tty30  tty45  tty6   usbmon1  vfio
cl               hpet          null                shm       tty17  tty31  tty46  tty60  usbmon2  vga_arbiter
console          hugepages     nvram               snapshot  tty18  tty32  tty47  tty61  vcs      vhci
core             hwrng         oldmem              snd       tty19  tty33  tty48  tty62  vcs1     vhost-net
cpu              initctl       port                stderr    tty2   tty34  tty49  tty63  vcs2     vmci
cpu_dma_latency  input         ppp                 stdin     tty20  tty35  tty5   tty7   vcs3     zero
crash            kmsg          ptmx                stdout    tty21  tty36  tty50  tty8   vcs4
disk             log           pts                 tty       tty22  tty37  tty51  tty9   vcs5
dm-0             loop-control  random              tty0      tty23  tty38  tty52  ttyS0  vcs6
dm-1             mapper        raw                 tty1      tty24  tty39  tty53  ttyS1  vcsa
[root@localhost dev]# mkfs.ext3 /dev/sda3
mke2fs 1.42.9 (28-Dec-2013)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
1310720 inodes, 5242880 blocks
262144 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296
160 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
    32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208, 
    4096000

Allocating group tables: done
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

[root@localhost dev]# lvm
lvm> pvcreate /dev/sda3
WARNING: ext3 signature detected on /dev/sda3 at offset 1080. Wipe it? [y/n]: y
  Wiping ext3 signature on /dev/sda3.
  Physical volume "/dev/sda3" successfully created.
lvm> vgextend centos /dev/sda3
  Volume group "centos" not found
  Cannot process volume group centos
lvm> vgdisplay
  --- Volume group ---
  VG Name               cl
  System ID
  Format                lvm2
  Metadata Areas        1
  Metadata Sequence No  3
  VG Access             read/write
  VG Status             resizable
  MAX LV                0
  Cur LV                2
  Open LV               2
  Max PV                0
  Cur PV                1
  Act PV                1
  VG Size               <19.00 GiB
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              4863
  Alloc PE / Size       4863 / <19.00 GiB
  Free  PE / Size       0 / 0
  VG UUID               T7a0MM-htee-aJAT-PcIi-VnAL-RGe7-V2ofrS

lvm> ^C
[root@localhost dev]# reboot

Connection closed by foreign host.

Disconnected from remote host(MXVPN) at 23:55:53.

Type `help' to learn how to use Xshell prompt.
[e:\~]$

Connecting to xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:22...
Connection established.
To escape to local shell, press 'Ctrl+Alt+]'.

Last login: Tue Jun 29 23:13:50 2021 from 192.168.3.47
[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 42.9 GB, 42949672960 bytes, 83886080 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x0009dedb

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048     2099199     1048576   83  Linux
/dev/sda2         2099200    41943039    19921920   8e  Linux LVM
/dev/sda3        41943040    83886079    20971520   8e  Linux LVM

Disk /dev/mapper/cl-root: 18.2 GB, 18249416704 bytes, 35643392 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

Disk /dev/mapper/cl-swap: 2147 MB, 2147483648 bytes, 4194304 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

[root@localhost ~]# df -T /dev/sda1
Filesystem     Type 1K-blocks   Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda1      xfs    1038336 189384    848952  19% /boot
[root@localhost ~]# pvcreate /dev/sda3
  Physical volume "/dev/sda3" successfully created.
[root@localhost ~]# pvdisplay
  --- Physical volume ---
  PV Name               /dev/sda2
  VG Name               cl
  PV Size               <19.00 GiB / not usable 3.00 MiB
  Allocatable           yes (but full)
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              4863
  Free PE               0
  Allocated PE          4863
  PV UUID               83M3hh-NBTu-dAUM-ohQ0-TPun-i8dK-np2pW5

  "/dev/sda3" is a new physical volume of "20.00 GiB"
  --- NEW Physical volume ---
  PV Name               /dev/sda3
  VG Name
  PV Size               20.00 GiB
  Allocatable           NO
  PE Size               0
  Total PE              0
  Free PE               0
  Allocated PE          0
  PV UUID               tNf51N-JJDs-sFQm-3PYT-sn62-8FMg-DosHQ3

[root@localhost ~]# vgdisplay
  --- Volume group ---
  VG Name               cl
  System ID
  Format                lvm2
  Metadata Areas        1
  Metadata Sequence No  3
  VG Access             read/write
  VG Status             resizable
  MAX LV                0
  Cur LV                2
  Open LV               2
  Max PV                0
  Cur PV                1
  Act PV                1
  VG Size               <19.00 GiB
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              4863
  Alloc PE / Size       4863 / <19.00 GiB
  Free  PE / Size       0 / 0
  VG UUID               T7a0MM-htee-aJAT-PcIi-VnAL-RGe7-V2ofrS

[root@localhost ~]# vgextend cl /dev/sda3
  Volume group "cl" successfully extended
[root@localhost ~]# lvextend -l +2559 /dev/cl/root
  Size of logical volume cl/root changed from <17.00 GiB (4351 extents) to 26.99 GiB (6910 extents).
  Logical volume cl/root successfully resized.
[root@localhost ~]# vgdisplay
  --- Volume group ---
  VG Name               cl
  System ID
  Format                lvm2
  Metadata Areas        2
  Metadata Sequence No  5
  VG Access             read/write
  VG Status             resizable
  MAX LV                0
  Cur LV                2
  Open LV               2
  Max PV                0
  Cur PV                2
  Act PV                2
  VG Size               38.99 GiB
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              9982
  Alloc PE / Size       7422 / 28.99 GiB
  Free  PE / Size       2560 / 10.00 GiB
  VG UUID               T7a0MM-htee-aJAT-PcIi-VnAL-RGe7-V2ofrS

[root@localhost ~]# lvdisplay
  --- Logical volume ---
  LV Path                /dev/cl/swap
  LV Name                swap
  VG Name                cl
  LV UUID                BxFDIE-Fqba-OdhL-63kB-RPLX-BBo2-wl6E87
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Creation host, time localhost.localdomain, 2017-10-17 22:17:07 +0800
  LV Status              available
  # open                 2
  LV Size                2.00 GiB
  Current LE             512
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  - currently set to     8192
  Block device           253:1

  --- Logical volume ---
  LV Path                /dev/cl/root
  LV Name                root
  VG Name                cl
  LV UUID                PylgYk-IZQG-tf3R-DYzF-R71V-MCBf-7ct6oe
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Creation host, time localhost.localdomain, 2017-10-17 22:17:07 +0800
  LV Status              available
  # open                 1
  LV Size                26.99 GiB
  Current LE             6910
  Segments               2
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  - currently set to     8192
  Block device           253:0

[root@localhost ~]# xfs_growfs /dev/cl/root
meta-data=/dev/mapper/cl-root    isize=512    agcount=4, agsize=1113856 blks
         =                       sectsz=512   attr=2, projid32bit=1
         =                       crc=1        finobt=0 spinodes=0
data     =                       bsize=4096   blocks=4455424, imaxpct=25
         =                       sunit=0      swidth=0 blks
naming   =version 2              bsize=4096   ascii-ci=0 ftype=1
log      =internal               bsize=4096   blocks=2560, version=2
         =                       sectsz=512   sunit=0 blks, lazy-count=1
realtime =none                   extsz=4096   blocks=0, rtextents=0
data blocks changed from 4455424 to 7075840
[root@localhost ~]# df -h
Filesystem           Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/cl-root   27G   17G   10G  63% /
devtmpfs             901M     0  901M   0% /dev
tmpfs                912M     0  912M   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                912M  8.7M  904M   1% /run
tmpfs                912M     0  912M   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda1           1014M  185M  830M  19% /boot
tmpfs                183M     0  183M   0% /run/user/1001
tmpfs                183M     0  183M   0% /run/user/0
[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 42.9 GB, 42949672960 bytes, 83886080 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x0009dedb

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048     2099199     1048576   83  Linux
/dev/sda2         2099200    41943039    19921920   8e  Linux LVM
/dev/sda3        41943040    83886079    20971520   8e  Linux LVM

Disk /dev/mapper/cl-root: 29.0 GB, 28982640640 bytes, 56606720 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

Disk /dev/mapper/cl-swap: 2147 MB, 2147483648 bytes, 4194304 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

[root@localhost ~]# lvextend -l +2560 /dev/cl/root
  Size of logical volume cl/root changed from 26.99 GiB (6910 extents) to 36.99 GiB (9470 extents).
  Logical volume cl/root successfully resized.
[root@localhost ~]# lvextend -l +2560 /dev/cl/root
  Insufficient free space: 2560 extents needed, but only 0 available
[root@localhost ~]# xfs_growfs /dev/cl/root
meta-data=/dev/mapper/cl-root    isize=512    agcount=7, agsize=1113856 blks
         =                       sectsz=512   attr=2, projid32bit=1
         =                       crc=1        finobt=0 spinodes=0
data     =                       bsize=4096   blocks=7075840, imaxpct=25
         =                       sunit=0      swidth=0 blks
naming   =version 2              bsize=4096   ascii-ci=0 ftype=1
log      =internal               bsize=4096   blocks=2560, version=2
         =                       sectsz=512   sunit=0 blks, lazy-count=1
realtime =none                   extsz=4096   blocks=0, rtextents=0
data blocks changed from 7075840 to 9697280
[root@localhost ~]#

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